A HISTORICAL APPROACH OF THE BEGINNINGS
According to Paul Virilio one of the most perceptible consequences of technology and, in particular, of speed, is the have changed the world view, and in this section, I enter into some considerations that have been interesting to me because they question us how the roles of the work and the artist have evolved in relation to the new media.
Following Manchán Fiz, electronic art is developed with the popularization of video and its use in the renovating movements of the sixties. Although in the first moments video art was a substitute for television, it soon defined its own language and its different expressions: video-culture, video-performance, video-installation, in which the representation of the body is very frequent.
Pionero del videoarte fue el artista coreano Nam June Paik (1932), destacan también el artista: Bill Viola (1951) que parte del principio de que el vídeo es una forma de comunicación del artista consigo mismo lo que hace que en esté siempre presente su propia imagen. Gary Hill, pretende mostrar través del video lo intrascendente del ser humano, Bruce Naumann comienza a explorar las profundidades del paisaje de la psique humana en un deseo de hacer visible lo insondable, Marijó La Fontaine, etc.
As progress is made on the development of technology and with the transition from analog to digital culture, there is a break in the linearity of communication and with it a complexity of production modes. Thus, from a production linearity (artist-work-receptor), we have moved to a non-linear and increasingly complex production, in which not only the number of subjects involved is broadened and the physical place of production is diversified, but often the product becomes something immaterial, an image in movement that, lacking valuation as a commodity of change, escapes the traditional bourgeois conception of possession.
On the other hand, with the development of specifically cybernetic art I would like to highlight new facts that have conditioned artistic achievements in the last decades and that should be taken into account:
· Computable forms are inseparable from technological development in their process and in their intelligibility, these forms were not born in the world of professional artists, but in that of the big companies: Bell, Boeing, Westinghouse. Siemens, General Motors. The development of technological art has to do, therefore, with the current social domain, although over the last few years it has tended to become popular and cease to be representative of capitalist production.
· It is important to be aware that beyond the iconic representations of any kind, the computer is a means to conceive structural arrangements that has become an auxiliary instrument for the creation of aesthetic-artistic orders. The aesthetics of the computer, according to Bense, is a numerical aesthetic, is interested in numerical values and their relation to complexity and order.
· We must assume the relationship of language and technology (verbal, by language and mathematical type) to understand that technology, as a linguistic tool, is exerting a feed-back with the human brain changing both consubstantially in progression, and this is interesting to understand the relationship of the body with technology from the point of view of the viewer.
· Marchan Fiz also states that in the beginnings of cybernetic art in the years 60 and 70 the search for the emancipatory possibilities of the medium took place, as an objective on the part of the artists and in this line we have Antoni Muntadas advocating a critical position of the artist: "artists should maintain the same critical position that is at the basis of the most lucid works in the history of art, those works rooted in a specific time and place, that is, in a context".
· We have gone from the Art of Technical Reproducibility advocated by Walter Benjamin, to the Art of the era of digital reproduction. There is no distinction between original and reproduction. In film, electronic or telecommunications media. The concept of authorship is transformed, a concept that was already questioned by Marcel Duchamp with the ready made. Given the progressive sophistication of media, the artist is aware that the concept of authorship is increasingly a collaborative process of scientists, technicians and engineers. The concept of the artist's workshop is no longer meaningful when the virtual world of the network becomes his studio and possibility of exhibition.
· Many artists work with technology to give it a different meaning from its intrinsic technical purpose, trying to discover the mechanisms of seduction and those that regulate the meaning. For many artists, the network has represented an unprecedented context in which to investigate, but a last wave of artists has been born with the computer and consider the virtual space as the only environment in which to experiment. His discourse is comparable to the decoding experiments of the media language typical of American postmodern artists born in the 80 decade. Net-artists are not obsessed by the continuous evolution of technology, but, above all, artists who decode the language used by the new media.